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The Economics of Watershed Management  

Brent M. Haddad

Watersheds are physical regions from which all arriving water flows to a single exit point. The shared hydrology means that other biophysical systems are linked, typically with ... More

Biodiversity Generation and Loss  

T.H. Oliver

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Human activities in the Anthropocene are influencing the twin processes of biodiversity generation and loss in complex ways that threaten the maintenance of biodiversity levels that ... More

International Environmental Conventions on Biodiversity  

Matti Nummelin and Niko Urho

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity have been in the center of policy creation for half a century. The main international biodiversity conventions and processes include the ... More

Mining, Ecological Engineering, and Metals Extraction for the 21st Century  

Margarete Kalin, William N. Wheeler, Michael P. Sudbury, and Bryn Harris

The first treatise on mining and extractive metallurgy, published by Georgius Agricola in 1556, was also the first to highlight the destructive environmental side effects of mining and ... More

The Role of Cover Crops in Agriculture and Their Environmental Significance  

Helena Aronsson

Growing a cover crop between main crops imitates natural ecosystems where the soil is continuously covered with vegetation. This is an important management practice in preserving soil ... More

Extinction  

Mark V. Barrow

The prospect of extinction, the complete loss of a species or other group of organisms, has long provoked strong responses. Until the turn of the 18th century, deeply held and widely ... More

Environmental History of the Mississippi River and Delta  

Christopher Morris

The Mississippi River, the longest in North America, is really two rivers geophysically. The volume is less, the slope steeper, the velocity greater, and the channel straighter in its ... More

Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon  

Phillip Fearnside

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia destroys environmental services that are important for the whole world, and especially for Brazil itself. These services include maintaining ... More

Causes of Soil Salinization, Sodification, and Alkalinization  

Elisabeth N. Bui

Driving forces for natural soil salinity and alkalinity are climate, rock weathering, ion exchange, and mineral equilibria reactions that ultimately control the chemical composition of ... More

Environmental Geology and Sustainability of Deltas  

Enuvie G. Akpokodje

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Deltas have played a significant role in the growth of human civilization because of their unique economic and ecological importance. However, deltas are becoming increasingly vulnerable ... More

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