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Payments versus Direct Controls for Environmental Externalities in Agriculture  

Alfons Weersink and David Pannell

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The production of food, fiber, and fuel often results in negative externalities due to impacts on soil, water, air, or habitat. There are two broad ways to incentivize farmers to alter ... More

Pesticides and Human Health  

Pierluigi Cocco

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The fight against agricultural and household pests accompanies the history of humanity, and a total ban on the use of pesticides seems unlikely to happen in the foreseeable future. ... More

Pollution in Terrestrial and Aquatic Sediment  

Rodney Stevens

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Pros and Cons of GMO Crop Farming  

Rene Van Acker, Motior Rahman, and S. Zahra H. Cici

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The global area sown to genetically modified (GM) varieties of leading commercial crops (soybean, maize, canola, and cotton) has expanded over 100-fold over two decades. Thirty countries ... More

Quaternary Science  

Kenneth Addison

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Renewable Energy for Human Sustainability  

Peter J. Schubert

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Renewable energy was used exclusively by the first humans and is likely to be the predominant source for future humans. Between these times the use of extracted resources such as coal, ... More

Resilience  

Carl Folke

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Resilience thinking in relation to the environment has emerged as a lens of inquiry that serves a platform for interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration. Resilience is about cultivating ... More

Rethinking Conflict over Water  

Scott M. Moore

It has long been accepted that non-renewable natural resources like oil and gas are often the subject of conflict between both nation-states and social groups. But since the end of the ... More

Risk Perception and Its Impacts on Risk Governance  

Ortwin Renn and Andreas Klinke

Risk perception is an important component of risk governance, but it cannot and should not determine environmental policies. The reality is that people suffer and die as a result of false ... More

Risks and Food Safety in a Global Economy  

Stephanie Assmann

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

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