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Cultivation, Improvement, and Environmental Impacts of Tea  

Mainaak Mukhopadhyay and Tapan Kumar Mondal

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Tea, the globally admired, non-alcoholic, caffeine-containing beverage, is manufactured from the tender leaves of the tea [Camellia sinensis (L.)] plant. It is basically a woody, perennial ... More

Dairy, Science, Society, and the Environment  

Christopher Lu

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Dairy has intertwined with human society since the beginning of civilization. It evolves from art in ancient society to science in the modern world. Its roles in nutrition and health are ... More

Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon  

Phillip Fearnside

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia destroys environmental services that are important for the whole world, and especially for Brazil itself. These services include maintaining ... More

Ecological Effects of Environmental Stressors  

Bill Freedman

Regimes of environmental stress are exceedingly complex. Particular stressors exist within continua of intensity of environmental factors. Those factors interact with each other, and their ... More

Ecological Engineering for Mine Waste and Water Management  

Margarete Kalin and William N. Wheeler

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Economics of Low Carbon Agriculture  

Dominic Moran and Jorie Knook

Climate change is already having a significant impact on agriculture through greater weather variability and the increasing frequency of extreme events. International policy is rightly ... More

The Economics of Oil Spills  

Maria L. Loureiro and Maria Alló

Online publication date:
May 2017
Vessel oil spills are very serious natural hazards that have affected coasts worldwide for many decades. Although oil spills from tankers are highly publicized, very little is known about ... More

Economics of Reforestation and Afforestation  

Daowei Zhang

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been harvested or depleted, and afforestation is the establishing of a forest in an area ... More

Ecosystem Management of the Boreal Forest  

Timo Kuuluvainen

Boreal countries are rich in forest resources, and for their area, they produce a disproportionally large share of the lumber, pulp, and paper bound for the global market. These countries ... More

Ecosystem Services  

Leon C. Braat

The concept of ecosystem services considers the usefulness of nature for human society. The economic importance of nature was described and analyzed in the 18th century, but the term ... More

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