Aijun Ding, Xin Huang, and Congbin Fu
Air pollution is one of the grand environmental challenges in developing countries, especially those with high population density like China. High concentrations of primary and secondary trace gases and particulate matter (PM) are frequently observed in the industrialized and urbanized regions, causing negative effects on the health of humans, plants, and the ecosystem.
Meteorological conditions are among the most important factors influencing day-to-day air quality. Synoptic weather and boundary layer dynamics control the dispersion capacity and transport of air pollutants, while the main meteorological parameters, such as air temperature, radiation, and relative humidity, influence the chemical transformation of secondary air pollutants at the same time. Intense air pollution, especially high concentration of radiatively important aerosols, can substantially influence meteorological parameters, boundary layer dynamics, synoptic weather, and even regional climate through their strong radiative effects.
As one of the main monsoon regions, with the most intense human activities in the world, East Asia is a region experiencing complex air pollution, with sources from anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, dust storms, and biogenic emissions. A mixture of these different plumes can cause substantial two-way interactions and feedbacks in the formation of air pollutants under various weather conditions. Improving the understanding of such interactions needs more field measurements using integrated multiprocess measurement platforms, as well as more efforts in developing numerical models, especially for those with online coupled processes. All these efforts are very important for policymaking from the perspectives of environmental protection and mitigation of climate change.
Simon Holdaway and Rebecca Phillipps
Northeast Africa forms an interesting case study for investigating the relationship between changes in environment and agriculture. Major climatic changes in the early Holocene led to dramatic changes in the environment of the eastern Sahara and to the habitation of previously uninhabitable regions. Research programs in the eastern Sahara have uncovered a wealth of archaeological evidence for sustained occupation during the African Humid Period, from about 11,000 years ago. Initial studies of faunal remains seemed to indicate early shifts in economic practice toward cattle pastoralism. Although this interpretation was much debated when it was first proposed, the possibility of early pastoralism stimulated discussion concerning the relationships between people and animals in particular environmental contexts, and ultimately led to questions concerning the role of agriculture imported from elsewhere in contrast to local developments. Did agriculture, or indeed cultivation and domestication more generally (sensu Fuller & Hildebrand, 2013), develop in North Africa, or were the concepts and species imported from Southwest Asia? And if agriculture did spread from elsewhere, were just the plants and animals involved, or was the shift part of a full socioeconomic suite that included new subsistence strategies, settlement patterns, technologies, and an agricultural “culture”? And finally, was this shift, wherever and however it originated, related to changes in the environment during the early to mid-Holocene?
These questions refer to the “big ideas” that archaeologists explore, but before answers can be formed it is important to consider the nature of the material evidence on which they are based. Archaeologists must consider not only what they discover but also what might be missing. Materials from the past are preserved only in certain places, and of course some materials can be preserved better than others. In addition, people left behind the material remains of their activities, but in doing so they did not intend these remains to be an accurate historical record of their actions. Archaeologists need to consider how the remains found in one place may inform us about a range of activities that occurred elsewhere for which the evidence may be less abundant or missing. This is particularly true for Northeast Africa where environmental shifts and consequent changes in resource abundance often resulted in considerable mobility. This article considers the origins of agriculture in the region covering modern-day Egypt and Sudan, paying particular attention to the nature of the evidence from which inferences about past socioeconomies may be drawn.
Maria Cristina Fossi and Cristina Panti
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Please check back later for the full article.
In the past, the use of large marine vertebrates in marine ecosystem monitoring and assessment has been criticized. The fact that these species are pelagic and highly mobile has led some to suggest that they are not useful indicator species. However, in recent years a contrary view has emerged suggesting that when we gain sufficient understanding of differences in species distribution and behavior, at different times of the year, they can be extremely valuable sentinels of environmental quality. Among large vertebrates, top predators play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of pelagic marine ecosystems. Among top predator species, 90% have been lost from the world’s oceans. Pelagic ecosystems may undergo collapse when large marine vertebrates are lost. It is crucial to know the status of large vertebrate populations and to establish mitigation measures for their conservation. For example, it is well known that the various cetacean species exhibit different home ranges and occupy different habitats. This knowledge can be exploited in hot-spot areas, such as the Mediterranean basin, where different species could serve as sentinels of marine environmental quality at different times during the annual cycle. In this contest, the bottlenose dolphin, a coastal species, could be an indicator of various anthropogenic pressures on the coastal environment. Similarly, the striped dolphin, the most abundant odontocete in the Mediterranean region, is distributed in deeper offshore waters and could be a sentinel of the pelagic environment. Finally, due to its broad-ranging seasonal movements across the whole basin, the fin whale could represent an integrated indicator of the whole Mediterranean area.
In this case, it seems that there is usually a particular large marine vertebrate species that provides the best opportunity for detecting and monitoring specific types of pollutants in particular marine areas at different times of the year. For example, swordfish and tuna are valuable for monitoring mercury concentrations and organochlorines, while turtles are especially useful for monitoring the occurrence of plastics, and mysticete cetaceans for looking at microplastics. It also emerged that large pelagic fish may be especially useful for monitoring short- to medium-term changes in pelagic ecosystems, while marine mammals such as whales provided a more integrated view over the long-term.